From time to time you need to test some email within your TYPO3 installation. Whether it might be that you are a developer sending some mail via a CommandController or Plugin, or you are an integrator configuring EXT:powermail or EXT:form to deliver some mail.
In all cases you need to make sure this mail is not send to external addresses like your customer during development and testing. Also you need to be able to check the content of the mail. In this blog post you will learn what mbox is and how to use it.
What’s mbox? ¶
Accordingly to Wikipedia:
Mbox is a generic term for a family of related file formats used for holding collections of email messages, […]
All messages in an mbox mailbox are concatenated and stored as plain text in a single file. […]
[…] the format used for the storage of email has never been formally defined through the RFC standardization mechanism […] In 2005 finally, the application/mbox media type was standardized as RFC 4155, and hints that mbox stores mailbox messages in their original Internet Message (RFC 2822) format, […]
So mbox does not introduce any dependency at all, it’s just a plain text file inside the filesystem. Stored mail can be checked with any editor one feels comfortable with. Beside a plain editor, thanks due the RFC existing Mail clients are able to read the stored mails. This way it’s possible to open mails with an existing desktop GUI for inspection.
Setup TYPO3 ¶
TYPO3 provides an API to deliver emails. It’s a small wrapper around the Swift Mailer library. Every email send through this API is delivered accordingly to the configuration of TYPO3. This makes it possible to send all mails via an SMTP or some other mail system. But it’s also possible to use mbox as an alternative.
To use mbox as mail delivery within TYPO3, the following two options have to be set, e.g. within
$GLOBALS['TYPO3_CONF_VARS']['MAIL']['transport'] = 'mbox'; $GLOBALS['TYPO3_CONF_VARS']['MAIL']['transport_mbox_file'] = '/path/to/mbox/file';
typo3/sysext/core/Configuration/DefaultConfigurationDescription.yaml the option
transport_mbox_file is documented:
The file where to write the mails into. This file will be conforming the mbox format described in RFC 4155. It is a simple text file with a concatenation of all mails. Path must be absolute.
Once the options are configured, one could use the “Environment” backend module to “Test Mail Setup”, which was located inside the Install Tool prior CMS v9. The Mail should be send and the file should be created by TYPO3 containing the example mail.
Setup E-Mail client ¶
Not every client works with mbox files:
Command Line ¶
For command line there is the “mail” utility, e.g. within the mailutils debian package or on macOS. Call
mail /path/to/mbox/file to open all available mails.
Also on command line available is the mail client mutt and neomutt. Call the program with path to the mbox file.
For desktop clients, Thunderbird will do the job. ¶
Create a symlink to the mbox file within the Thunderbird profile. E.g. under Ubuntu 18.04 this can be done by calling:
ln -s "/path/to/mbox/file" "/home/<username>/.thunderbird/<profileFolder>/Mail/Local Folders"
An concrete example:
ln -s ~/Projects/mbox/typo3-example.mbox "/home/daniels/.thunderbird/j30pjbfz.default/Mail/Local Folders"
After the link was created, restart Thunderbird and one should see the mbox file in the bottom left of available mail accounts inside “Local Folders”.
Some further notes regarding mbox within Thunderbid:
The local folders are not synced. Once a mail is send, one needs to refresh them. This can be achieved by right click on the mbox file within Thunderbird. Select “Properties” and click “Repair Folder”. This will refresh the content within Thunderbird.
Thunderbird will not update the mbox file. E.g. if mails are deleted within Thunderbird, this will not be reflected within the file. So one might truncate the file content from time to time.
I didn’t take a deeper look at this, but it looks like Thunderbird uses an internal database beside the mbox for indexing, leading to the above workarounds.
There might be further clients available I’m not aware of, just contact me and I’ll add them.
Further thoughts ¶
Since mbox is just plain text one could easily integrate this for functional testing within a test suite, without the need to run any other software.
Also as the file can be opened with desktop mail clients, Frontend developers are able to “real world” test the output and styling. Contrary to solutions like MailHog or MailCatcher the rendering happens inside the client and not a browser.
Added information about refreshing Thunderbird and clearing contents of mbox. Thanks to @garbast for the hint to add these information.
Further reading ¶
- TYPO3 documentation about emails: https://docs.typo3.org/typo3cms/CoreApiReference/ApiOverview/Mail/Index.html
- Reading an mbox file with Thunderbird - Berkeley Lab Commons: https://firstname.lastname@example.org/Reading+an+mbox+file+with+Thunderbird