Workflow for: Read the docs, Sphinx and Plantuml

Documentation was never easier, with a Framework like Sphinx and a hoster like Read the docs. All you need is a repository containing your Documentation written with Sphinx and an account at Read the docs. Plantuml can be used in addition to generate UML-Diagrams using plain text. The result can be SVG files in the same color as your Documentation. The whole setup and workflow for that will be explained in this Blog post. After reading the post, you are able to kickstart a new documentation and host it at Read the docs. You then can dig deeper and adjust it to your needs.

All instructions are tested on OS X, I’ll not document for Windows. Unix systems should be the same as OS X and you probably already know how to do it yourself.


First let’s start with Sphinx to get a first documentation rendered on the local machine.


To use Sphinx, we need to install it. Up to date instructions can be found at Installing Sphinx.

Basically you can install via:

pip install -U Sphinx

Start documenting

To start your documentation sphinx provides a CLI tool to create a new project:


It’s interactive and will ask all necessary information.

An example setup will look like:

Welcome to the Sphinx 1.4.3 quickstart utility.

Please enter values for the following settings (just press Enter to
accept a default value, if one is given in brackets).

Enter the root path for documentation.
> Root path for the documentation [.]: example-documentation

You have two options for placing the build directory for Sphinx output.
Either, you use a directory "_build" within the root path, or you separate
"source" and "build" directories within the root path.
> Separate source and build directories (y/n) [n]: y

Inside the root directory, two more directories will be created; "_templates"
for custom HTML templates and "_static" for custom stylesheets and other static
files. You can enter another prefix (such as ".") to replace the underscore.
> Name prefix for templates and static dir [_]:

The project name will occur in several places in the built documentation.
> Project name: Example for Blogpost
> Author name(s): Daniel Siepmann

Sphinx has the notion of a "version" and a "release" for the
software. Each version can have multiple releases. For example, for
Python the version is something like 2.5 or 3.0, while the release is
something like 2.5.1 or 3.0a1.  If you don't need this dual structure,
just set both to the same value.
> Project version: 1.0.0
> Project release [1.0.0]:

If the documents are to be written in a language other than English,
you can select a language here by its language code. Sphinx will then
translate text that it generates into that language.

For a list of supported codes, see
> Project language [en]:

The file name suffix for source files. Commonly, this is either ".txt"
or ".rst".  Only files with this suffix are considered documents.
> Source file suffix [.rst]:

One document is special in that it is considered the top node of the
"contents tree", that is, it is the root of the hierarchical structure
of the documents. Normally, this is "index", but if your "index"
document is a custom template, you can also set this to another filename.
> Name of your master document (without suffix) [index]:

Sphinx can also add configuration for epub output:
> Do you want to use the epub builder (y/n) [n]: n

Please indicate if you want to use one of the following Sphinx extensions:
> autodoc: automatically insert docstrings from modules (y/n) [n]: n
> doctest: automatically test code snippets in doctest blocks (y/n) [n]: n
> intersphinx: link between Sphinx documentation of different projects (y/n) [n]: y
> todo: write "todo" entries that can be shown or hidden on build (y/n) [n]: y
> coverage: checks for documentation coverage (y/n) [n]: n
> imgmath: include math, rendered as PNG or SVG images (y/n) [n]: n
> mathjax: include math, rendered in the browser by MathJax (y/n) [n]: n
> ifconfig: conditional inclusion of content based on config values (y/n) [n]: n
> viewcode: include links to the source code of documented Python objects (y/n) [n]: n
> githubpages: create .nojekyll file to publish the document on GitHub pages (y/n) [n]: n

A Makefile and a Windows command file can be generated for you so that you
only have to run e.g. `make html' instead of invoking sphinx-build
> Create Makefile? (y/n) [y]: y
> Create Windows command file? (y/n) [y]: n

Creating file example-documentation/source/
Creating file example-documentation/source/index.rst.
Creating file example-documentation/Makefile.

Finished: An initial directory structure has been created.

You should now populate your master file example-documentation/source/index.rst and create other documentation
source files. Use the Makefile to build the docs, like so:
make builder
where "builder" is one of the supported builders, e.g. html, latex or linkcheck.

As Sphinx is written in Python and used to document Python modules, most extensions can be omitted for your documentation, until you are working with Python code.

I definitely recommend to enable todo and intersphinx all the time. Also ifconfig can be helpful. But it’s just the kickstart and you can add extensions later on inside the configuration.

Also do yourself a favour and create the Makefile for easier usage.

Sphinx will setup a structure like:

└── example-documentation
    ├── Makefile
    ├── build
    └── source
        ├── _static
        ├── _templates
        └── index.rst

5 directories, 3 files

You now can render the documentation by calling:

make html

Sphinx will generate the full HTML and write it to build/html. You can open the documentation using:

open ./build/html/index.html

The first output will look like:

A first result after kickstart and first generation.

You can now start writing the documentation, following the Sphinx Documentation, and adjust the look and feel, e.g. change the theme using one of the builtin Themes.


To make integration with Read the docs easier, we will publish our documentation as a Git repository to Github.

First of all you need to initialize a new Git-Repository, of course you can also use Mercurial or something else. Do so by running:

echo "build" > .gitignore && git init && git add . && git commit -m "First version"

Next sign up at Github if you don’t have an account yet. Create a repository, which is only possible if you are logged in. Github should redirect you to your new repository with a URL scheme like <UserName>/<RepositoryName>. Add the repository at Github to your local repository by running:

git remote add origin<UserName>/<RepositoryName>.git && git push --mirror

If you reload the web Gui of Github you should see a first commit.

Github provides full documentation at if something is not clear or you need further help setting everything up.

Read the docs

To host our documentation without the need to setup the rendering or web space, we will use Read the docs.

Therefore register at Read the docs, and connect the account to your Github account. You can now see all your Github repositories and select the created one to automatically render the documentation on new commits.

Read the docs interface to connect with Github and Bitbucket. Read the docs interface to import repositories from Github.

You are now ready to go, Read the docs should already render your documentation. You have an overview at where your project should appear. Navigate to the project by clicking the title and you should the Last Built on the right mentioning whether everything worked. Also at top you have a navigation. Go to Builds and you can get an detailed view what was going on and where something broke.

To setup further branches in your repository to render, head to Versions and set them up.

The green Button View Docs will bring you to your generated documentation. It’s already online and all you have to do in the future is to do a:

git commit -m "Made changes" && git push

Read the docs will detect the changes and render your documentation.


Everything is working now. Let’s add some sugar with nice looking UML diagrams to explain the structure of our project, or some complex workflows.

To provide nice looking UML diagrams like:

Example documentation, rendered ad Read the docs, with PlantUml image.

We will use PlantUml. As it’s not available as a Debian package yet, Read the docs doesn’t provide rendering for it. So you have to render the images on your local machine and provide them to Read the docs.


First of all you need to install Java and Graphviz to draw the diagrams. Head over to and to follow the installation.

Provide wrapper

After PlantUml is on your local system, make your live easier by providing the following shell script inside your $PATH to just call plantuml in the future anywhere on your CLI:

#!/usr/bin/env sh -e
java -Djava.awt.headless=true -jar $HOME/Applications/plantuml.jar -tsvg -failfast2 "$@"

Adjust the path according to your location of plantuml.jar. This wrapper will run PlantUml without the GUI, and generate SVGs as default for all provided PlantUml source files.

Integration into Documentation

To integrate PlantUml into your Sphinx documentation, you can setup the following structure:

└── example-documentation
    ├── Makefile
    ├── build
    └── source
        ├── uml
        │   └── example.uml
        ├── _static
        ├── _templates
        └── index.rst

6 directories, 4 files

And adjust your Makefile to render all PlantUml files for you.

Add the following entry to your Makefile:

    plantuml -psvg -o ../images/uml/ ./source/uml/*.uml

You now can call:

make plantuml

That will create a new folder with generated images:

└── example-documentation
    ├── Makefile
    ├── build
    └── source
        ├── images
        │   └── uml
        │       └── example.svg
        ├── uml
        │   └── example.uml
        ├── _static
        ├── _templates
        └── index.rst

8 directories, 5 files

To include the diagram into your documentation, use the image or figure directive of rst.

To ease workflow, adjust your Makefile further to run plantuml also for html and such by using:

html: plantuml

Adjust look

At the moment we will get the default styling of PlantUML which is not nice in our Template. You can adjust the styling by providing the a file called plantuml.cfg with the following content:

skinparam backgroundColor white

skinparam note {
    BackgroundColor #F1FFFF
    BorderColor #2980B9

skinparam activity {
    BackgroundColor #BDE3FF
    ArrowColor #2980B9
    BorderColor #2980B9
    StartColor #227BC6
    EndColor #227BC6
    BarColor #227BC6

skinparam sequence {
    ArrowColor  #2980B9
    DividerBackgroundColor  #BDE3FF
    GroupBackgroundColor    #BDE3FF
    LifeLineBackgroundColor white
    LifeLineBorderColor #2980B9
    ParticipantBackgroundColor  #BDE3FF
    ParticipantBorderColor  #2980B9
    BoxLineColor    #2980B9
    BoxBackgroundColor  #DDDDDD

skinparam actorBackgroundColor #FEFECE
skinparam actorBorderColor    #A80036

skinparam usecaseArrowColor   #A80036
skinparam usecaseBackgroundColor  #FEFECE
skinparam usecaseBorderColor  #A80036

skinparam classArrowColor #A80036
skinparam classBackgroundColor    #FEFECE
skinparam classBorderColor    #A80036

skinparam objectArrowColor    #A80036
skinparam objectBackgroundColor   #FEFECE
skinparam objectBorderColor   #A80036

skinparam packageBackgroundColor  #FEFECE
skinparam packageBorderColor  #A80036

skinparam stereotypeCBackgroundColor  #ADD1B2
skinparam stereotypeABackgroundColor  #A9DCDF
skinparam stereotypeIBackgroundColor  #B4A7E5
skinparam stereotypeEBackgroundColor  #EB937F

skinparam componentArrowColor #A80036
skinparam componentBackgroundColor    #FEFECE
skinparam componentBorderColor    #A80036
skinparam componentInterfaceBackgroundColor   #FEFECE
skinparam componentInterfaceBorderColor   #A80036

skinparam stateBackgroundColor #BDE3FF
skinparam stateBorderColor #2980B9
skinparam stateArrowColor #2980B9
skinparam stateStartColor black
skinparam stateEndColor   black

More about styling can be found at , .

And adjust your Makefile to provide this file to PlantUML:

    plantuml -config plantuml.cfg -psvg -o ../Images/Uml/ ./Uml/*.uml

Questions or issues

Make sure to check the help for Read the docs, Github help, Sphinx and PlantUml. If you still have questions or issues just leave a comment.

Further reading

You should now be able to write basic documentation with hosting at Read the docs. The following links can be startpoints to get further:

Also the following links as a collection: